After the devastating world wars, all states desired stability and peace in order to recover their casualties. States needed international organizations in order to promote and create peace via functional structures. Every international organization is created and given competence in order to fulfill its raison d’etre. United Nations was established by the member states to improve their relations and create collaborations on various subjects. This competence gives power to the organization but it also ensures it is not intervening in the sovereignty of the states and must not become too powerful or autonomous. This article is written with the aim of firstly explaining the purposes, qualifications, and actions of the United Nations and then examining its effectiveness with examples of the challenges of state sovereignty, great power hegemony, and structural errors.
THE VISEGRÁD GROUP
The Visegrad Group was formed as the ‘Visegrad Three’ among three countries: Hungary, Poland and Czechoslovakia, on February 15, 1991. Later, due to the fact that Czechoslovakia was divided into two, as the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the number of members increased to four, and the group was called the ‘Visegrad Four’ or ‘V4’ from this period, since 1993 (Alpar, 2020). The group is named after the Hungarian city of ‘Visegrad’. The group’s founding purpose was based on friendly essentials such as creating a bridge between east and west, decontaminating from the effects of communism, and integrating into the European Union and NATO. However, in 2004, the Visegrad countries experienced adaptation problems and intransigence within Europe after full membership in the European Union (Erdem, 2011).
TENSION IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
The war between Bosnians and Serbs, which started in 1992 and lasted for three years, went as far as the Bosnian Genocide, and the UN negotiated with the parties to stop the war. The air superiority of the Serbs was lost when NATO planes started to implement the UN-decided down-flight. In 1994, Bosnians and Serbs reached an agreement and stopped fighting. The borders separating Bosnia and Herzegovina ethnically were drawn. However, tensions in Bosnia and Herzegovina have increased recently. The memories of the civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in which thousands of people lost their lives, continue to be a source of tension between the two autonomous states that make up Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A CONSTANTLY SENDING COUNTRY: VENEZUELA
Venezuela is a country located in the north of South America and has a population of 28 million people. Unfortunately, the economic and political crisis in the country, especially since 2015, makes Venezuela one of the most sending countries after Syria, which has been destroyed by the civil war. For the last few years, one of every 5 people has been leaving the country, and the rest of the population is struggling with the country’s problems. Immigration from the country is mostly concentrated in other South American countries, but Venezuelans are actually located all over the world. Colombia, which has a common border with Venezuela, hosts almost 2 million Venezuelan immigrants.
FROM IMPORTED RESIDENT WELFARE STATE TO NEOLIBERATION: POVERTY IN TURKEY (1980-2000)
Neoliberalism seeks economic liberalization and globalization. For these purposes, countries integrate into global markets. But moving directly from imported substitution and welfare policies to neoliberal policies, such as Turkey, can have consequences such as poverty and income inequality. The wrong social policies created to prevent these negative consequences could put the country in a stalemate. In this article, between 1980 and 2000, the impoverishment of neoliberalized Turkey and a number of social policies developed as a result of this impoverishment will be mentioned.
RESULTS OF GERMANY ELECTIONS AND ITS IMPACT ON TURKEY
The people of Germany went to the polls on September 26, 2021, to determine the 20th Bundestag. Voters in Berlin, the capital of Germany, went to the polling station early in the morning to cast their votes.
THE REFLECTIONS OF THE SYRIAN CRISIS ON EUROPE AND TURKEY WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF SECURITIZATION OF MIGRATION
Today, one of the important issues for many countries of the world is migration. Driving factors such as poverty, conflict, war, and attractive factors such as living opportunities in developed regions, education, health, and jobs cause thousands of people to move within and between countries every year. However, this mobility can lead to serious effects and problems in political, social, cultural, ethnic, and religious areas.
VILLAGE INSTITUTES IN TURKEY
The Village Institutes project is one of the greatest pioneers of enlightenment both in the social and educational fields in the republican period.
AN ANALYSIS ON BRITISH-TURKISH RELATIONS 1919-39
After the geographical discoveries and colonial movements that the British Empire gained a lot through, a power hegemony started to appear concretely on the British axis. It would not be correct to match the age of British power hegemony to US power hegemony after the post-soviet era due to the other actors’ existence such as France and Italy. Naturally, British influence on World politics affected Turkish-British relations too, and bilateral relations gained importance and continued until nowadays
During the disintegration of Yugoslavia, the war started in 1992 when the Serbs and then the Croats attacked Bosnia and Herzegovina to invade and lasted until 1995. The Dayton Agreement was signed in 1995 with the initiatives of the European Union and the USA. In this way, Bosnia and Herzegovina are divided into regions as Serbs, Bosniaks, and Croats. In the war that lasted for more than three years, the invaders killed hundreds of thousands of Bosnian citizens in a planned and systematic way and expelled many people from their homes.