REGIONAL COOPERATION INITIATIVES: COMPARISON BETWEEN THE BALKAN PACT AND THE SAADABAD PACT

Historically, the Turkish foreign policy strategy is comprised of two different stages. Before evaluating these stages, there is a need to identify the objective of the newly formed Turkish government in the 1920s. The main objective of the Turkish government was to attain international recognition so as to be accepted as an equal member of […]

TERRORIST OR FREEDOM FIGHTER? -2

Turkey, who declared PKK as a terrorist organization, considers PYD as the continuation of PKK in Syria. In other words, they declared PYD as a terrorist organization as well. This situation, however, is not the case for the USA and other Western countries. Since 1970, in each year the US declares their Foreign Terrorist Organizations list, where PKK became part of it in 1989. As for the PYD, the US government didn’t include it on their list and this means that they don’t consider this as a terrorist organization. On the contrary, they are treating them like freedom fighters, proving them military equipment, health aid, and using them as a means for their own goals in Syria.

TERRORIST OR FREEDOM FIGHTER?

The problematic expression of “one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter” began to be used both as a justification for regional actors who engage with violent acts and by other states to fulfill their national interests. This expression can be understood better through Turkey’s struggle with terrorism with the example of PKK and YPG while addressing three levels of analysis put forward by Barry Buzan.

FRENCH FOREIGN LEGIONS

When we look at the relation between French Foreign Legions and the national interests of France abroad from the securitization perspective, we may clearly understand why France established the French Foreign Legion and why does France recruit from different nations and what does France do abroad. The first and basic answer to these questions is security.

EUROPEAN UNION AND SECURITY

In the 21st century, States are not the only entity as a securitizing actor in the macro perspective but also international organizations act as securitizing actors against the possible threat in the securitization process. At this point, the European Union(EU) is one of the entities that we can approach as a securitizing actor thanks to its capabilities on representing the member states and acting as one country in the international order thanks to its legislative organs. Besides, accepting an issue as a threat by the legislative body or a related organ of an association does not only affect one state but affects all member states. This means the maximization of the securitizing process by including more countries to take action against the threat. In this way, the threat can be adopted by not just people of a single state but by all people of the related association. Hereby securitizing actors can take extraordinary precautions to reduce the possible harm.

ENGLISH AS A GLOBAL LANGUAGE

Nowadays, English is the most widely used language across the world. Today, people from different nationalities use English in almost every step of their life during communication. English is used in global commerce, international diplomacy, air traffic control, the majority of academic writings, the internet, and tourism. That is, English is considered as a Lingua Franca by many people and official governments. But why English is the most used language instead of any other languages?

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