ECONOMIC LIBERATION OF RUSSIA

Throughout Russia’s history, it has had its ups and downs. The turning point of these ups and downs; 1905, 1917, and 1991. In 1905, the first of these given dates, there was a political liberalization. However, Tsarist Russia, which entered an economic stalemate with the unraveling of serfism, got rid of feudalism and adopted the policies of socialism in 1917. However, Russia, which lost to the United States in the Cold War, accepted this defeat and integrated it into the world global system. The element that is to be emphasized in this article is to emphasize the extent to which political transformations affect economic factors.

COOPERATION OF TURKIC STATES: TURKIC COUNCIL

Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan were founding members of the “Turkish Speaking Countries Cooperation Council” which was established on 3 October 2009 by the Nakhchivan agreement that signed in Nakhichevan. Uzbekistan became a full member during the 7th Congress held in October 2019. Hungary, on the other hand, became an observer member during the 6th Congress held in the city of Cholpon-Ata in Kyrgyzstan in 2018. The member states have accepted the aims and principles of the United Nations Agreement and the universal doctrines of international law.

SECURITY DOCTRINES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AFTER THE USSR

The Russian Federation, which was established after the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, found itself in a multi-polar international system and tried to secure itself in its immediate surroundings and eliminate the economic burdens of the USSR, which it bears its legacy. Here, first of all, the Primakov Doctrine, which was put into practice within the framework of the “Eurasian” understanding during the period of Boris Yeltsin, who was the first president of the Russian Federation, and named after the foreign minister of the period, will be pointed out. The Near Abroad Doctrine followed by the Russian Federation towards the Commonwealth of Independent States in the former Soviet geography will also be briefly mentioned.

EUROPEAN UNION AND SECURITY

In the 21st century, States are not the only entity as a securitizing actor in the macro perspective but also international organizations act as securitizing actors against the possible threat in the securitization process. At this point, the European Union(EU) is one of the entities that we can approach as a securitizing actor thanks to its capabilities on representing the member states and acting as one country in the international order thanks to its legislative organs. Besides, accepting an issue as a threat by the legislative body or a related organ of an association does not only affect one state but affects all member states. This means the maximization of the securitizing process by including more countries to take action against the threat. In this way, the threat can be adopted by not just people of a single state but by all people of the related association. Hereby securitizing actors can take extraordinary precautions to reduce the possible harm.

ENGLISH AS A GLOBAL LANGUAGE

Nowadays, English is the most widely used language across the world. Today, people from different nationalities use English in almost every step of their life during communication. English is used in global commerce, international diplomacy, air traffic control, the majority of academic writings, the internet, and tourism. That is, English is considered as a Lingua Franca by many people and official governments. But why English is the most used language instead of any other languages?

NATO & RUSSIA RELATIONS

The term “security” in the dictionary means, the legal order in public life, the state of safety, the state of the people can live without fear.[1] Today, it is still a controversial notion. States, like individuals, try to ensure their psychological and physical security. The concept of security is perceived as military defense, protection of borders, and prevention of internal disturbance in international relations.

TURKISH FOREIGN POLICY IN POST COLD WAR ERA-1

Turkey has always tried to keep her balance policy and the lands that Turkey settled down helped her in this case. Thanks to its strong state tradition most of the time we see this policy’s success. Turkey as a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation member tried to apply her Foreign Policies on behalf of her official allies. Thanks to the collapse of the Soviet Union, Soviet threats went away and Turkey found more places to move in easily from Balkans and Caucasia to Central Asia. By the governance of many parties especially in the Post Cold War Era between the years of 1991 and 2002, Turkey had a lot of new perceptions in terms of her Foreign Policy. All in all, in this paper, I tried to emphasize both Turkish internal and external structures related to her Foreign Affairs approaches.

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