Before examining the energy transmission lines between Russia and Turkey, we need to understand the relationship between these two countries from a general point of view. As we know, Russia and Turkey have a deep-rooted relationship historically. For this reason, Turkish-Russian relations have gone through many difficulties and at the same time many crises have been experienced.
EUROPE’S DEPENDENCE ON RUSSIA AND EUROPE’S PLANS AFTER THE UKRAINE RUSSIA WAR
The European continent is a poor region in terms of underground treasure. Therefore, it supplies its energy needs from neighboring countries. Europe, which is foreign-dependent especially in primary energy sources, imports energy mostly from Russia. The effects of the Ukraine – Russian War, which still continues today, also affect Europe’s dependence on energy. In this case, Europe once again faced its dependence on foreign energy, which it had been aware of for many years. However, the European Union has finally started to take concrete steps to end this dependency. These concrete steps taken will be examined under the name of alternative energy searches in this article.
HEAVY COST OF INVASION: AFGHANISTAN
The fact that Afghanistan is in intercontinental strategic geography has attracted the attention of many states to this region from time to time. After being completely occupied by the Russians in 1979, the region naturally attracted the attention of the USA. As a result of the attack on the Twin Towers and Pentagon in the USA on September 11, 2001, Osama Bin Laden and his organization Al Qaeda in Afghanistan were invaded by the USA with the allegation that this attack was carried out, and the USA started the war against terrorism. Although the Afghanistan construction process lasted for years and the hope of stabilization did not reach a solution, this process was examined in this study.
ECONOMIC LIBERATION OF RUSSIA
Throughout Russia’s history, it has had its ups and downs. The turning point of these ups and downs; 1905, 1917, and 1991. In 1905, the first of these given dates, there was a political liberalization. However, Tsarist Russia, which entered an economic stalemate with the unraveling of serfism, got rid of feudalism and adopted the policies of socialism in 1917. However, Russia, which lost to the United States in the Cold War, accepted this defeat and integrated it into the world global system. The element that is to be emphasized in this article is to emphasize the extent to which political transformations affect economic factors.
RUSSIA’S BALKANS ACTIVITIES
The Russians, who have been trying to enlarge and realize their ambitions since the 16th century, aimed to expand to the south and east in this direction. Especially the Balkans had a strategic importance for Russia. The fact that he could not follow a certain policy in this region throughout history and that it was not active in the problems and conflicts in the region in the 20th century and that it still could not develop a policy towards the Balkans that caused him to lose his influence in the Balkans. However, in the recent turn of the Balkan countries to the West has made Russia interested in this region. The importance of the Balkans for Russia can be explained by many factors such as Slavic-Orthodox brotherhood, passage to the Straits and energy security. In this study, Russia’s relationship with the Balkans throughout history will be briefly discussed and its current situation will be evaluated.
SECURITY DOCTRINES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AFTER THE USSR
The Russian Federation, which was established after the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, found itself in a multi-polar international system and tried to secure itself in its immediate surroundings and eliminate the economic burdens of the USSR, which it bears its legacy. Here, first of all, the Primakov Doctrine, which was put into practice within the framework of the “Eurasian” understanding during the period of Boris Yeltsin, who was the first president of the Russian Federation, and named after the foreign minister of the period, will be pointed out. The Near Abroad Doctrine followed by the Russian Federation towards the Commonwealth of Independent States in the former Soviet geography will also be briefly mentioned.
WHAT IS HAPPENING IN RUSSIA? THE CASE OF ALEXEI NAVALNY
Alexei Navalny is a Russian lawyer, activist, and politician.
POLITICAL PARTY DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA
Russia is a federation with 83 administrative units, consisting of 21 Republics, 9 states, 46 regions, 2 cities with federal status, and 5 autonomous regions, governed by a presidential system, with their own constitutions and legislative and executive organs.
TERRORIST OR FREEDOM FIGHTER? -2
Turkey, who declared PKK as a terrorist organization, considers PYD as the continuation of PKK in Syria. In other words, they declared PYD as a terrorist organization as well. This situation, however, is not the case for the USA and other Western countries. Since 1970, in each year the US declares their Foreign Terrorist Organizations list, where PKK became part of it in 1989. As for the PYD, the US government didn’t include it on their list and this means that they don’t consider this as a terrorist organization. On the contrary, they are treating them like freedom fighters, proving them military equipment, health aid, and using them as a means for their own goals in Syria.
Idlib region and its position for Turkey is very important. In order to understand this topic, first, we should learn some terms. To begin with, what is security?