In 1918, when Ukraine was going through a chaotic period, Ukrainian workers and peasants as a whole rebelled, and this action spawned a movement called ‘Makhnovshchina’, which means belonging to the Makhno. The Makhnovists, who had been fighting the Bolsheviks throughout the year 1920, eventually succumbed. This research article, called ‘Makhno and Makhnovshchina’, aimed to transfer it to the reader by using a number of written sources and considering the historical and social process of the Makhnovshchina movement, which united under the leadership of anarcho-communist leader Nestor Makhno. Questions of ‘Who is Nestor Makhno?’ and ‘Who are the Makhnovists?’ were trying to be answered and evaluations were made accordingly. In this context, the findings to be obtained in the research paper are limited to the historical and social process and biography.