The European continent is a poor region in terms of underground treasure. Therefore, it supplies its energy needs from neighboring countries. Europe, which is foreign-dependent especially in primary energy sources, imports energy mostly from Russia. The effects of the Ukraine – Russian War, which still continues today, also affect Europe’s dependence on energy. In this case, Europe once again faced its dependence on foreign energy, which it had been aware of for many years. However, the European Union has finally started to take concrete steps to end this dependency. These concrete steps taken will be examined under the name of alternative energy searches in this article.
Eastern Europe has conducted an economically and politically communist program under the hegemony of the USSR since World War II.
In the international system and law, states are in the utmost position by virtue of their sovereignty. The structure and the balance of international relations have a dynamic character that evolves with the acts, relations, and inventions of the states. This creates an anarchic order in which states behave in accordance with their interests which always comes within the need for survival in the system. This system has such a structure that it prepares the basis for actors to work in cooperation as well as to conflict with each other. After the World Wars, exhausted states reverberated their need for survival via creating international organizations.
Changes in perceptions about security have made an effective border security system a basic requirement for all countries. Border security is not only the countries’ own problems but also plays an important role in the establishment of international unity and trust building. The weaknesses of a country in border security affect neighboring and other countries as well. When the European Union (EU), which was established for the purpose of economic integration, reached this goal in 1992, the aim of political integration came to the fore. The EU has targeted that the member states should act jointly on visa procedures to be followed at country entries, immigration, asylum, and the prosecution of cross-border crimes. As a result of the Arab Spring that began in 2011 and the mass influx resulting from the Syrian war, border management has come to a position of importance for all EU countries. The EU needs common practices and decisions on border controls. It has developed an understanding of border management with common practices in the European Union on border controls with Schengen legislation and other EU legislation. In this context, migration has become one of the most important social and economic problems in the EU. Effective border protection has been vital for the EU, as international migration, terrorism, and organized crime have steadily increased.
The foundation of the European Union, a unique economic and political partnership covering most of Europe with 27 member states, was laid in 1951 when six countries (Belgium, Federal Germany, France, the Netherlands, Italy, and Luxembourg) founded the European Coal and Steel Community. The European Union has gone through six enlargement periods from the past […]
Historically, the Turkish foreign policy strategy is comprised of two different stages. Before evaluating these stages, there is a need to identify the objective of the newly formed Turkish government in the 1920s. The main objective of the Turkish government was to attain international recognition so as to be accepted as an equal member of […]
The European Parliament is one of the institutions of the European Union which represents the citizens of the member states. As the only directly elected institution within the European Union, the European Parliament has three main powers as legislative power, budgetary power, and supervisory power.
In the 21st century, States are not the only entity as a securitizing actor in the macro perspective but also international organizations act as securitizing actors against the possible threat in the securitization process. At this point, the European Union(EU) is one of the entities that we can approach as a securitizing actor thanks to its capabilities on representing the member states and acting as one country in the international order thanks to its legislative organs. Besides, accepting an issue as a threat by the legislative body or a related organ of an association does not only affect one state but affects all member states. This means the maximization of the securitizing process by including more countries to take action against the threat. In this way, the threat can be adopted by not just people of a single state but by all people of the related association. Hereby securitizing actors can take extraordinary precautions to reduce the possible harm.