During the disintegration of Yugoslavia, the war started in 1992 when the Serbs and then the Croats attacked Bosnia and Herzegovina to invade and lasted until 1995. The Dayton Agreement was signed in 1995 with the initiatives of the European Union and the USA. In this way, Bosnia and Herzegovina are divided into regions as Serbs, Bosniaks, and Croats. In the war that lasted for more than three years, the invaders killed hundreds of thousands of Bosnian citizens in a planned and systematic way and expelled many people from their homes.
The fact that Afghanistan is in intercontinental strategic geography has attracted the attention of many states to this region from time to time. After being completely occupied by the Russians in 1979, the region naturally attracted the attention of the USA. As a result of the attack on the Twin Towers and Pentagon in the USA on September 11, 2001, Osama Bin Laden and his organization Al Qaeda in Afghanistan were invaded by the USA with the allegation that this attack was carried out, and the USA started the war against terrorism. Although the Afghanistan construction process lasted for years and the hope of stabilization did not reach a solution, this process was examined in this study.
Epidemics have changed the global order throughout history. For example, the Plague epidemic was allowed the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Coronavirus, which appeared in Wuhan, China in 2019 and spread all over the world in 2020, has also affected the whole world socially, politically, and economically. However, since it is only a new case, the most devastating effect that can be seen is deepening poverty. What this study wants to emphasize is to try to explain with data how the coronavirus process deepens poverty in Turkey.
Cuba has been ruled by the Communist Party (Partida Comunista Cubano-PCC) for years, and anti-government protests in the country have not been seen in decades. The PCC imposes severe penalties on anti-government movements. It is, therefore, possible to say that there are serious reasons behind the protests that occurred in July 2021 in the island, a country of 11 million people. The pandemic, economic crisis, restriction of social media, and the ban on internet access are among these reasons. (BBC, 2021)
To begin with, this work focuses on the diaspora after the communist world and is a response to Maria Koinova’s article “diasporas and democratization in the post-communist world”. Mentioned this article (Koinova, 2009) describes post-communist diaspora activities based on the Ukrainian, Serbian, Albanian and Armenian diaspora. Despite the literature that the diaspora shows nationalist attitudes, in this article, the author claims that they really participate in the democratization of their country. Citizens in the diaspora are trying to reduce international pressure on post-communist society by using democratic means to promote nationalist feelings and goals that are still unresolved.
1989 was an important year that symbolized the collapse of the Iron Curtain in Eastern Europe with a series of events such as the fall of the Berlin Wall and Czechoslovakia’s Velvet Revolution. The Romanian Revolution of December 1989, written by Peter Siani-Davies, provides a proper narrative regarding the background and aftermath of Eastern Europe’s bloodiest turmoil, which ended up with the overthrow, and then execution of Nicolae Ceauşescu, who was the last oppressive communist leader of Romania.
When the bureaucracy is mentioned, politics and administration are the first terms that come to mind, and this is an indication of how inevitable the relationship between them is. Max Weber introduced bureaucracy to the world as a form of organization. According to Weber, the old organizational structures were insufficient to meet the administrative needs of society after industrialization. Therefore, the role of leaders has gradually diminished, and legality and the system have become important. As a result, the old organizational structures were replaced by a new form of an administrative organization called bureaucracy (Baransel, 1979: 166). We can say that bureaucracy is an effort to be an ideal and rational form of organization.
The Mediterranean region has always been important for the great powers as well as the states around it throughout history, and with this importance, the region has been a place of competition for the states. There have been struggles between the great powers who wanted to take this region under their control. In fact, there were struggles in this region during the Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire. The fact that the Mediterranean has trade routes connecting the Eastern and Western civilizations and is a gateway to the warm seas makes this region an important and dynamic region.
Yemen has been a country open to foreign interventions throughout its history, it has become visible on the international agenda especially after 2015. The political situation deteriorated due to the lack of control of the political uprisings, still has not recovered. Therefore, in this article, the Yemeni Civil War is analyzed in terms of its socio-political, socio-religious, historical, relationship with global and regional powers.
Throughout Russia’s history, it has had its ups and downs. The turning point of these ups and downs; 1905, 1917, and 1991. In 1905, the first of these given dates, there was a political liberalization. However, Tsarist Russia, which entered an economic stalemate with the unraveling of serfism, got rid of feudalism and adopted the policies of socialism in 1917. However, Russia, which lost to the United States in the Cold War, accepted this defeat and integrated it into the world global system. The element that is to be emphasized in this article is to emphasize the extent to which political transformations affect economic factors.