The colonization efforts of great powers generally aimed at economic gains, benefiting from the resources and the labor force of Africa. European powers embarked on this mission as if they were going to provide Africans with education and contribute to civilization, rather than colonizing the land. The reality was far more different than what they […]
Unification of East and West Germany, the collapse of the Warsaw Pact, the dissolution of the Soviet Union and globalization have completely changed the systems of international relations. All these changes in the world and especially in Europe have led to radical changes in Europe’s political paradigms.
Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan were founding members of the “Turkish Speaking Countries Cooperation Council” which was established on 3 October 2009 by the Nakhchivan agreement that signed in Nakhichevan. Uzbekistan became a full member during the 7th Congress held in October 2019. Hungary, on the other hand, became an observer member during the 6th Congress held in the city of Cholpon-Ata in Kyrgyzstan in 2018. The member states have accepted the aims and principles of the United Nations Agreement and the universal doctrines of international law.
In Christchurch/New Zealand, with a population of 400,000, 2 mosques were targeted armed assaults on 15 March 2019. Besides, New Zealand was generally considered as a safe country for migrants and refugees. The man who carried out the attack, Bretton Tarrant, an Australian citizen who describes himself as a racist. The fact that the terrorist attack was targeting Muslims attending Friday prayers, made it a global issue rather than a domestic one in New Zealand.
In the period between the early 1960s and the end of the 1980s, the strategic convergence required by the cold war for both the USA and the Western world and the Soviets played a leading role in the development of the underdeveloped countries and especially the newly independent countries. For the Western world, preventing the global spread of Soviet influence was of utmost importance, as the underdeveloped countries did not shift to socialism.
Northern Ireland contains the essential nationalism and ethnic problems in the developed world. The Irish people are divided into Northern Ireland, one of the four countries that make up the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland to the West and south.
Chile is considered the most democratic and stable country among Latin American countries. According to Freedom House’s 2021 reports, the country’s assessment score for political rights and civil liberties is 93 out of hundred. (Freedom House, 2020) Given this report, it can be said that the country has a very bright image in the name of democracy and political stability. However, is this the case for Chile?
Chechens, known as the autochthonous people of the North Caucasus, have been living in the region between the Sunja and Argun Rivers since ancient times.
During his visit to Kazakhstan in September 2013, President of the People’s Republic of China Xi Jinping suggested establishing a modern Land Silk Road. During his visits to Indonesia in October the same year, Xi Jinping proposed establishing a Maritime Silk Road Project. These projects are called the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road and Silk […]
The Russian Federation, which was established after the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, found itself in a multi-polar international system and tried to secure itself in its immediate surroundings and eliminate the economic burdens of the USSR, which it bears its legacy. Here, first of all, the Primakov Doctrine, which was put into practice within the framework of the “Eurasian” understanding during the period of Boris Yeltsin, who was the first president of the Russian Federation, and named after the foreign minister of the period, will be pointed out. The Near Abroad Doctrine followed by the Russian Federation towards the Commonwealth of Independent States in the former Soviet geography will also be briefly mentioned.