THE IMPOVERISHING EFFECT OF PANDEMIC ON TURKEY

Epidemics have changed the global order throughout history. For example, the Plague epidemic was allowed the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Coronavirus, which appeared in Wuhan, China in 2019 and spread all over the world in 2020, has also affected the whole world socially, politically, and economically. However, since it is only a new case, the most devastating effect that can be seen is deepening poverty. What this study wants to emphasize is to try to explain with data how the coronavirus process deepens poverty in Turkey.

PROTESTS NOT SEEN FOR YEARS IN CUBA

Cuba has been ruled by the Communist Party (Partida Comunista Cubano-PCC) for years, and anti-government protests in the country have not been seen in decades. The PCC imposes severe penalties on anti-government movements. It is, therefore, possible to say that there are serious reasons behind the protests that occurred in July 2021 in the island, a country of 11 million people. The pandemic, economic crisis, restriction of social media, and the ban on internet access are among these reasons. (BBC, 2021)

DIASPORAS IN POST-COMMUNIST WORLD

To begin with, this work focuses on the diaspora after the communist world and is a response to Maria Koinova’s article “diasporas and democratization in the post-communist world”. Mentioned this article (Koinova, 2009) describes post-communist diaspora activities based on the Ukrainian, Serbian, Albanian and Armenian diaspora. Despite the literature that the diaspora shows nationalist attitudes, in this article, the author claims that they really participate in the democratization of their country. Citizens in the diaspora are trying to reduce international pressure on post-communist society by using democratic means to promote nationalist feelings and goals that are still unresolved.

A BOOK REVIEW: THE ROMANIAN REVOLUTION OF DECEMBER 1989

1989 was an important year that symbolized the collapse of the Iron Curtain in Eastern Europe with a series of events such as the fall of the Berlin Wall and Czechoslovakia’s Velvet Revolution. The Romanian Revolution of December 1989, written by Peter Siani-Davies, provides a proper narrative regarding the background and aftermath of Eastern Europe’s bloodiest turmoil, which ended up with the overthrow, and then execution of Nicolae Ceauşescu, who was the last oppressive communist leader of Romania.

POLITICALIZATION AND THE TURKISH BUREAUCRACY

When the bureaucracy is mentioned, politics and administration are the first terms that come to mind, and this is an indication of how inevitable the relationship between them is. Max Weber introduced bureaucracy to the world as a form of organization. According to Weber, the old organizational structures were insufficient to meet the administrative needs of society after industrialization. Therefore, the role of leaders has gradually diminished, and legality and the system have become important. As a result, the old organizational structures were replaced by a new form of an administrative organization called bureaucracy (Baransel, 1979: 166). We can say that bureaucracy is an effort to be an ideal and rational form of organization.

THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

The Mediterranean region has always been important for the great powers as well as the states around it throughout history, and with this importance, the region has been a place of competition for the states. There have been struggles between the great powers who wanted to take this region under their control. In fact, there were struggles in this region during the Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire. The fact that the Mediterranean has trade routes connecting the Eastern and Western civilizations and is a gateway to the warm seas makes this region an important and dynamic region.

YEMENI CIVIL WAR

Yemen has been a country open to foreign interventions throughout its history, it has become visible on the international agenda especially after 2015. The political situation deteriorated due to the lack of control of the political uprisings, still has not recovered. Therefore, in this article, the Yemeni Civil War is analyzed in terms of its socio-political, socio-religious, historical, relationship with global and regional powers.

ECONOMIC LIBERATION OF RUSSIA

Throughout Russia’s history, it has had its ups and downs. The turning point of these ups and downs; 1905, 1917, and 1991. In 1905, the first of these given dates, there was a political liberalization. However, Tsarist Russia, which entered an economic stalemate with the unraveling of serfism, got rid of feudalism and adopted the policies of socialism in 1917. However, Russia, which lost to the United States in the Cold War, accepted this defeat and integrated it into the world global system. The element that is to be emphasized in this article is to emphasize the extent to which political transformations affect economic factors.

RUSSIA’S BALKANS ACTIVITIES

The Russians, who have been trying to enlarge and realize their ambitions since the 16th century, aimed to expand to the south and east in this direction. Especially the Balkans had a strategic importance for Russia. The fact that he could not follow a certain policy in this region throughout history and that it was not active in the problems and conflicts in the region in the 20th century and that it still could not develop a policy towards the Balkans that caused him to lose his influence in the Balkans. However, in the recent turn of the Balkan countries to the West has made Russia interested in this region. The importance of the Balkans for Russia can be explained by many factors such as Slavic-Orthodox brotherhood, passage to the Straits and energy security. In this study, Russia’s relationship with the Balkans throughout history will be briefly discussed and its current situation will be evaluated.

THE PLACE OF THE END OF THE ONE-PARTY PERIOD IN TURKISH DEMOCRACY

The DP could not confront the anti-democracy that it promised to be against during its rule, and experienced the gravity of holding power. For example, DP criticized the wrong and unfair proportional electoral system in Turkish democracy, but they did not change it. Because they could not afford not to use the advantage, when the majority was with themselves and they preferred the electoral system, which was on behalf of them, against democracy. In other words, while the DP had a great chance to change and democratize Turkey, they could not take advantage of it. The Turkish soldiers who took part in the Korean War, and the implementation of a policy that sided with the United States, and even in the coup d’etat, the emphasis on allegiance to NATO, has pushed Turkish politics to a great fear and reaction against the left. There was almost an allergy against communism and socialism in the society, and it was tried to be brought into the subconscious of the whole nation that these thoughts could not be accepted. This great reaction against the left caused both the left and the right to become more polarized and radicalized; therefore, Turkish politics has turned into a system which is coming close to fascism.

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