BORDER SECURITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND FRONTEX

Changes in perceptions about security have made an effective border security system a basic requirement for all countries. Border security is not only the countries’ own problems but also plays an important role in the establishment of international unity and trust building. The weaknesses of a country in border security affect neighboring and other countries as well. When the European Union (EU), which was established for the purpose of economic integration, reached this goal in 1992, the aim of political integration came to the fore. The EU has targeted that the member states should act jointly on visa procedures to be followed at country entries, immigration, asylum, and the prosecution of cross-border crimes. As a result of the Arab Spring that began in 2011 and the mass influx resulting from the Syrian war, border management has come to a position of importance for all EU countries. The EU needs common practices and decisions on border controls. It has developed an understanding of border management with common practices in the European Union on border controls with Schengen legislation and other EU legislation. In this context, migration has become one of the most important social and economic problems in the EU. Effective border protection has been vital for the EU, as international migration, terrorism, and organized crime have steadily increased.

ENERGY DIPLOMACY, GEOPOLITICS AND ECONOMY POLICY OF TURKEY

Energy is an indispensable element of the country’s economic and diplomatic power. As much as a country’s natural resource wealth, its geopolitical position is important. Because the geopolitical position plays a big role in transporting the resource and reducing its cost. Turkey, on the other hand, is in an important place due to its geopolitical position, even if it does not have enough resources in the world energy game. Despite being in such an important position, it also provides the most budget deficit through energy spending. The aim of this study is to discuss Turkey’s position in the world energy game from a diplomatic, economic and geopolitical perspective.

CIVIL SOCIETY IN HUNGARY

2010 was the year of elections in Hungary and the result of these elections were shaped Hungarian democracy after that time. Viktor Orban became the Prime Minister of Hungary as President of the Fidesz Party (Magyar Polgári Szövetség) and he has been carrying out this duty ever since.

EUROPEAN UNION AND SECURITY

In the 21st century, States are not the only entity as a securitizing actor in the macro perspective but also international organizations act as securitizing actors against the possible threat in the securitization process. At this point, the European Union(EU) is one of the entities that we can approach as a securitizing actor thanks to its capabilities on representing the member states and acting as one country in the international order thanks to its legislative organs. Besides, accepting an issue as a threat by the legislative body or a related organ of an association does not only affect one state but affects all member states. This means the maximization of the securitizing process by including more countries to take action against the threat. In this way, the threat can be adopted by not just people of a single state but by all people of the related association. Hereby securitizing actors can take extraordinary precautions to reduce the possible harm.

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