EUROPE’S DEPENDENCE ON RUSSIA AND EUROPE’S PLANS AFTER THE UKRAINE RUSSIA WAR

The European continent is a poor region in terms of underground treasure. Therefore, it supplies its energy needs from neighboring countries. Europe, which is foreign-dependent especially in primary energy sources, imports energy mostly from Russia. The effects of the Ukraine – Russian War, which still continues today, also affect Europe’s dependence on energy. In this case, Europe once again faced its dependence on foreign energy, which it had been aware of for many years. However, the European Union has finally started to take concrete steps to end this dependency. These concrete steps taken will be examined under the name of alternative energy searches in this article.

THE SYSTEM OF THE UNITED NATIONS AND ITS INEFFICIENCY

After the devastating world wars, all states desired stability and peace in order to recover their casualties. States needed international organizations in order to promote and create peace via functional structures. Every international organization is created and given competence in order to fulfill its raison d’etre. United Nations was established by the member states to improve their relations and create collaborations on various subjects. This competence gives power to the organization but it also ensures it is not intervening in the sovereignty of the states and must not become too powerful or autonomous. This article is written with the aim of firstly explaining the purposes, qualifications, and actions of the United Nations and then examining its effectiveness with examples of the challenges of state sovereignty, great power hegemony, and structural errors.

THE VISEGRÁD GROUP

The Visegrad Group was formed as the ‘Visegrad Three’ among three countries: Hungary, Poland and Czechoslovakia, on February 15, 1991. Later, due to the fact that Czechoslovakia was divided into two, as the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the number of members increased to four, and the group was called the ‘Visegrad Four’ or ‘V4’ from this period, since 1993 (Alpar, 2020). The group is named after the Hungarian city of ‘Visegrad’. The group’s founding purpose was based on friendly essentials such as creating a bridge between east and west, decontaminating from the effects of communism, and integrating into the European Union and NATO. However, in 2004, the Visegrad countries experienced adaptation problems and intransigence within Europe after full membership in the European Union (Erdem, 2011).

TENSION IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

The war between Bosnians and Serbs, which started in 1992 and lasted for three years, went as far as the Bosnian Genocide, and the UN negotiated with the parties to stop the war. The air superiority of the Serbs was lost when NATO planes started to implement the UN-decided down-flight. In 1994, Bosnians and Serbs reached an agreement and stopped fighting. The borders separating Bosnia and Herzegovina ethnically were drawn. However, tensions in Bosnia and Herzegovina have increased recently. The memories of the civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in which thousands of people lost their lives, continue to be a source of tension between the two autonomous states that make up Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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